4-Methylmethcathinone (Mephedrone, 4-MMC)
4-Methylmethcathinone is a synthetic stimulant with euphoric and empathogenic effects that gained popularity in the U.K., Ireland, Australia, and Europe between 2007 and 2009. The effects of 4-methylmethcathinone are often compared to those of MDMA, MBDB, bk-MDMA (methylone), cocaine, methamphetamine and other euphoric stimulants. Because of its short duration and intense rush, there are numerous reports of compulsive redosing, resulting in the use of more 4-methylmethcathinone than intended.
A standard oral dose of 4-methylmethcathinone is between 75 and 200 mg. It is most frequently found as a powder, though a few tablets have been commercially produced.
As of November 2009, 4-methylmethcathinone is primarily sold online and is available for as low as $20 (USD) for a single gram, with bulk pricing as low as $15 (USD) per gram.
4-Methylmethcathinone is temporarily Schedule I in the United States and it would be considered an illegal analogue of methcathinone if intended for human consumption. 4-methylmethcathinone is controlled in a number of countries, including Australia, Denmark, Germany, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
Pharmacology Summary Needed.
Production Summary Needed.
Little has been published about the history of 4-methylmethcathinone prior to its introduction into the world online markets in 2007. The first country to ban it by name was Israel in December 2007.
Terminology / Slang #
Mephedrone, 4-MMC, Meow, M-Cat, Bubbles
Depending on how much and how recently one has eaten food, oral 4-methylmethcathinone generally takes 15-45 minutes to take full effect. On a full stomach, onset can be considerably slower. When insufflated, effects are usually felt within a few minutes and the peak is reached within 30 minutes or less.
The primary effects of 4-methylmethcathinone last approximately 2-3 hours when taken orally. For many people there is an additional period of time (1-4 hrs) where it is difficult to go to sleep but where mood and mind-set are mostly back to baseline. It is quite common for users to report a strong urge to redose as the effects wane, between 45 and 120 minutes after initial ingestion. With lower levels of consumption, the day-after effects are relatively mild, with most users reporting light to no hangover. Heavy users report worrying neurological and vasoconstrictive symptoms that can last days or weeks.
Visual Effects #
Visuals Summary Needed.
Nausea, teeth-clenching, compulsive redosing, heart palpitations, racing heart, increased blood pressure, and other effects of high dose stimulants.
- Do not take 4-methlmethcathinone if you are currently taking an MAOI. MAOIs are most commonly found in the prescription anti-depressants Nardil (phenelzine), Parnate (tranylcypromine), Marplan (isocarboxazid), Eldepryl (l-deprenyl), and Aurorex or Manerix (moclobemide). Ayahuasca also contains MAOIs (harmine and harmaline). Stimulants and MAOIs are a potentially dangerous combination. Check with your doctor if you are not sure whether your prescription medication is an MAOI.
- At strong doses, do not operate heavy machinery. Do Not Drive.
- If you have a seizure or convulsive disorder or heart problems, you may be at higher risk for health problems when taking stimulants.
Addiction Potential #
4-Methylmethcathinone is not likely to cause much physical dependence or withdrawal symptoms, but many users report difficulty controlling their own use within a short period of time. It is unknown whether use might lead to long-term psychological addiction and related problems, but it is likely that 4-methylmethcathinone could be one of a number of stimulants that are part of a pattern of stimulant overuse.
Long-Term Health Problems #
There have been reports of vasoconstriction with repeated dosing, including moderate to severe symptoms of tingling and numbness in the extremities, headache, light-headedness and worrisome skin discoloration.
Risk of Death #
Risks of death associated with stimulants usually involve cardiovascular problems, overheating, and dangerous drug interactions as well as accidents related to intoxication and multi-drug combinations. 4-methylmethcathinone has been associated with several deaths, but details of the circumstances of these incidents are scanty.
CAUTION & DISCLAIMER #
Erowid Basics pages are summaries of data gathered from site visitors, government documents, books, websites, and other resources. We do our best to keep this information correct and up-to-date, but the field is complex and constantly changing. Information should always be verified through multiple sources.