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Newsgroups: alt.psychoactives
Subject: Re: LSD dosages
Message-ID: <2N557B1w165w@qedbbs.com>
From: marsthom@qedbbs.com (Mark Thompson)
Date: 23 Jul 93 12:32:00 GMT

[some stuff deleted -cak]

Abstracts regarding low doses of LSD (Less than 50 mcg)
 
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 Bibliography on Psychotomimetics 1943-1966
 Reprinted with permission of Sandoz Pharmaceuticals by
 US Department of Health, Education & Welfare, Public Health Service
 National Institute of Mental Health
 RM315.Z9 S23
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GREINER T, BURCH N R, EDELBERT R
Psychopatholgy and psychophysiology of minimal LSD-25 dosage.
A prelimiary dosage-response spectrum.
Arch.Neurol.& Psychiat. 79:208 (1958)
 
Double-blind studies on 14 healthy subjects confirmed that LSD fails
to elicit a physiological response in doses less than 20 mcg.
Dramatic psychic symptoms, e.g. deviations from normal in body image,
thought, and emotion, occurred only with dosages in excess of 20 mcg.
However, careful observation and questioning revealed certain changes
in affect and psychomotor activity with doses as low as 7 mcg.
Classical schizophrenia-like symptoms first begin to appear when the
dose exceeded 30 mcg.
 
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STOLL W A
Lysergsaure-diathyl-amid, ein Phantastikum aus der Mutterkorngruppe.
(LSD, a hallucinatory aggent from the ergot group)
Schweiz.Arch.Neur. 60 (1947).
 
A report is made of the mental effects of LSD. LSD was administered
on 29 occasions to 16 normal subjects and on 20 occasions to 6
schizophrenics. LSD produced a state of intoxication of the acute
exogenic reaction type. Stress is laid on the fact that LSD is active
in very small amounts (20-30 mcg.  orally).
 
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STOLL W A
Ein neues, in sehr kleinen Mengen wirsames Phantastikum.
(An new hallucinatory agent, active in very small amounts)
Schweiz, Arch, Neur. 60,483 (1947).
 
20-30 mcg. LSD given orally to mentally normal subjects produced an
intoxication of the acute exogenic reaction type lasting several
hours. LSD produced autonomic and motor symptoms, disturbances of
optical perception, clouding of consciousness, a tendency to
euphoria, etc.
 
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DELAY J, PICHOT P
Diethylamide de l'acide d-lysergique et troubles psychiques de 
l'ergotisme.
(LSD and psychic disorders in ergotism)
C.r. Soc. Biol. 145,1609 (1951)
 
The authors observed after 20-50 mcg. LSD euphoria with compulsive
laughter, depression, mental disorders and even slight states of
confusion. In some cases, there were visual illusions, hallucinations
resembling those caused by mescaline, disorders of synaesthesia and
posture sense. The authors find a [superficial] similarity between
the effects of LSD and the psychic symptoms observed in epidemics of
ergotism.
 
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GAUSTAT H, FERRER S, CASTELIS C, LESERVE N, LUSHNAT K
Action de las diethylamid de l'acide d-lysergique (LSD-25) sur les 
fonctions
psychiques et l'electroencephalogramme.
(Effect of LSD on mental functions and the EEG)
 
In 7 of 12 normal subjects 40-60 mcg. LSD orally produced autonomic,
psychic and EEG responses. In 4 subjects only 1 or 2 of these
responses were observed. In 1 case LSD had no effect. The effects are
considered to be an expression of neurotic hyperexcitability
(shortening of refractory period) and a reduction in the "filtering"
of impulses through nervous centers.
 
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ARNOLD O H, HOFF H
Untersuchungen uber die Wirkingsweise von Lysergsaurediathylamid. (1.
Mittelung.)
(Investigations on the mode of action of LSD (1st communication))
Wein. Ztschr.Nerenh. 6,129 (1953)
 
Normal subjects exhibit "specific" reactions to 25-100 mcg. LSD:
disturbances of self-awareness, ideation and perception. Chronic
alcoholics do not exhibit these reactions, especially after delirium
tremens. In Korsakow's syndrome the specific reactions are absent
only when lower portions of the brain (medulla, midbrain) are
affected. Delirium tremens produces symptoms which are similar to
those produced by LSD but of greater intensity.
 
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FREDERKING W
Ueber die Verwendung von Raushdrogen (mesklan und 
Lysergsaurediaethylamid) in der Psychotherapie.
(The use of LSD and mescaline in psychotherapy)
Psyche 7,342 (1953/54)
 
LSD (40-60 mcg. orally) and mescaline (0.3-0.5 Gm i.m.) were used in
neurotic patients refreactory to psychoanalysis. Over 100
"intoxication" studies (including author's personal investigations).
LSD employed in 60 instances.  The "intoxication", as does a dream,
exerted a therapeutic effect aiding psychoanalysis (24 cases
described). The therapeutic effect of LSD was better than that of
mescaline. Caution is required in cases of anxiety states and
suspected schizophrenia. The author strongly recommends that each
physician using LSD should, under supervision, study the effect of a
high dose of LSD himself in order to facilitate interpretation of a
patient's experiences under LSD.
 
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GAMNA G, BOFANTE B, VILLATA E
Autoesperienze con LSD
(Personal studies with LSD)
 
Four studies were made of 10 and 50 mcg. LSD orally (by two
psychiatrists and one chaplain). The mental symptoms were relatively
few and were accompanied by sympaticotonia, neutrophilia and an
increase in gamma globulin.
 
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ROUBICEK J
Toxicke a experimentali dusveni porouchy
(Toxic and experimental psychoses)
Csl.Psychiat. 56,8 (1960)
 
Based on previous studies, the author emphasizes the importance of
the experimental psychoses, which are provoked by LSD or Psilocybin,
for research and psychicatric therapy.
 
Especially emphasized is that small doses of LSD(30-40mcg.) or
Psilocybin can be used with good results in ambulant treatment of
psychoneurotic and psychosomatic disorders. 200 patients received
LSD, some on several occasions. Only 2 unpleasant situations occurred
(sexual aggression towards the therapist). The influence of LSD and
mescaline on the artistic ability of professional and amateur
painters is also reported.
 
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SAVAGE C
Variations in ego feeling induced by d-lysergic acid diethylamide 
(LSD-25)
Psychoanalyt.Rev. 42:1 (1955)
 
Report on 300 observations of LSD in 32 hospitalized mental patients
and 6 normal controls. The dosage employed was 10-100 mcg. orally or
parenterally.  In normal subjects an effect was produced by 10 mcg.
but in acute schizophrenics 100 mcg. was required to produce a much
slighter effect. In acute schizophrenics the symptoms caused by LSD
appeared to be an exaggferation of symptoms that already existed.
Chronic schisophrenicsa exhibited behavior similar to that observed
in acute episodes. Schizoid patients with depression and involutional
depressives (most subjects developed tolerance to LSD after repeated
doses.) It is concluededt hat LSD makes it impossible for the ego to
integrate the evidence of its senses and to coordinate its
activities.
 
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ABRAMSON H A
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide(LSD-25): XIX. As an adjunct to brief 
psychotherapy,
with special reference to ego enhancement.
J.Psychol. 41:199 (1956)
 
1. Previous data on the nature of the ego enhancement occuring during
the LSD-25 reaction is amplified by making a direct comaprison with
the ego depression simultaneously occuring. During the LSD-25
reaction advantage may be taken of the integrative function of the
ego if the therapist recognizes the presence of the processes of ego
reinforcement.
 
2. Although ego depression may occur during the LSD-25 reaction to
produce a psychotic state, this state is associated primarily with
doses greater than 50 micrograms by mouth. The nature of the ego
depression is shown by a verbatim recording. The subject was
essentially incapable of communicating effectively with the
interviewer during the height of the LSD-25 response.
 
3. The nature of the integrative processes during ego enhancement
with small doses of LSD-25 (20 to 50 micrograms) is illustrated by
verbatim recordings.  It is emphasized that during the LSD-25
reaction, the integrative functions of the ego often operate
effectively to utilize preconscious and unconscious material during
therapeutic interviews lasting as long as four hours and covering
periods of observation lasting six hours. Whether or not the LSD-25
reaction develops into one where ego reinforcement or one where ego
depression is emphasized depends to a great extent upon the
relationship of the therapist to the patient. During the same
therapeutic interview the therapist can manipulate the nature of the
response.
 
4. It is beleived that LSD-25 may be utilized to more effectively
mobilize psychodynamic vectors during the analysis of the
transference.
 
5. In non-psychotic groups studied, important relationships developed
amongst groups consisting of two to five members. These always led to
some insight and better adaptive techniques both at work and in
community activities on the part of the subjects who met repeatedly.
This suggests the possible use of LSD-25 as an adjuvant to group
therapy.
 
6. Preliminary data are reported on the effect of LSD-25 on the
reassociation of dreams. It is stressed that verbatim recordings are
a necessary condidton for the successful utilizatio of dream
reassociation.
 
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BERLIN L, GUTHRIE T, WIEDER A, GOODELL H, WOLFF H G
Studies in human cerebral function: the effects of mescaline and lysergic
acid on cerebral processes pertinent to creative activity.
J.Nerv & Ment.Dis. 122:487 (1955)
 
LSD (50 mcg.) or mescaline (400-700 mg) orally impaired the highest
integrative functions of 4 graphic artists. Drawings revealed an
unusual expansiveness and relaxation of control, both colour and line
being free and bold. (black and white illustrations). No major
difference in effect between LSD and mescaline. Similar impairment of
functions was noted in a playwright given 50 mcg LSD orally.
 
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ABRAMSON H A, JARVIK M E, LEVINE A, KAUFMAN M R, HIRSH M W
 
"Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25): XV. The effects produced by
substitution of a tap water placebo."
 
J.Psychol. 40:367 (1955)
 
Studies in 33 normal subjects revealed that tap water is capable of
eliciting certain responses from certain subjects who believe they
have received LSD.
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