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References and mentions
of the hallucinogenic properties of Mulberry

  1. Peterson's Field Guide to Edible Plants (1977, Houghton-Mifflin)

    Mentions in its section on Red Mulberry "Warning: unripe frout and raw shoots contain hallucinogens."

  2. Ohio Perennial & Biennial Weed Guide

    "White Mulberry - All parts of white mulberry, except for the ripe fruit, contain a milky sap (latex) that is toxic to humans. Although humans may consume ripe mulberry fruit, ingestion of unripe fruit can result in stomach upset, stimulation of the nervous system and hallucinations."

  3. Aromatic Essentials

    "Mulberry roots have been used for tapeworm. Related species: Black Mulberry Red Mulberry. Both have similar properties. Warning: Juice and the unripe fruit may cause stomach problems and hallucinations!"

  4. Herbvideos

    "Mulberries - Red, Black & White - WARNING: Do not eat the unripe fruit and leaves because they may be mildly hallucinogenic. Ripened fruits are very edible."

    "Native American Medicine: Alabama [indians] infused roots and drank as a stimulant for increased energy."

  5. American Society of Plant Biologists

    1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), a polyhydroxylated piperidine, is a potent a-glycosidase inhibitor and is abundant in Morus spp. (mulberry trees) leaves and roots. Nowadays, M. alba leaves and dried Bombyx mori (silkworm) powder are taken as healthy foods in Korea. A simple method for the assay of DNJ was established and seasonal change of DNJ content in M. alba leaves was determined using the method. The method includes simple hot-water extraction, derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Optimal conditions for extraction and derivatization are described. For the stability of FMOC-derivative of DNJ, it was essential to dilute derivatization mixture with 0.1% acetic acid and to operate at 4กษ. The seasonal change of DNJ content in M. alba leaves seemed considerately related to that of temperature.

  6. Unihnasdedla Herbs (Cherokee)

    Guwa = Mulberry = Morus rubra = Anthelmintic and cathartic. Axis of the leaf contains a milky juice used to cure ringworms on the scalp. * The milky juice of the unripe fruit can induce hallucinations, nervous stimulation, and upset stomach.