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Tedeschi L, Frison G, Castagna F, Giorgetti R, Ferrara SD. 
“Simultaneous identification of amphetamine and its derivatives in urine using HPLC-UV”. 
Int J Legal Med. 1993;105(5):265-9.
An HPLC-UV method for the simultaneous identification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine is described. It includes a rapid extraction procedure of the 4 analogs from urine using Extrelut 3 columns, derivatization with sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) to obtain highly chromophoric UV-VIS derivatives, and a final HPLC analysis using an ion-pair reversed-phase technique with eluent monitoring at 480 nm. Structural characterization of the derivatives obtained by mass spectrometry is reported. Recoveries of the amphetamines were in the range 80-85% at concentrations of 300 ng/ml. Practical detection limits were 40-60 ng/ml (S/N ratio = 10) for all derivatives. The chromatographic peaks of the NQS derivatized amphetamines are fairly narrow and well resolved. The method is simple, rapid, quite sensitive, and specific for convenient confirmation of preliminary positive results obtained with immunoassays.
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