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Miller RT, Lau SS, Monks TJ. 
“2,5-bis-(Glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine, a putative metabolite of (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, decreases brain serotonin concentrations”. 
Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Apr 4;323(2-3):173-80.
3,4-(+/-)-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-(+/-)-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are serotonergic neurotoxicants. However, when injected directly into brain, MDA and MDMA are not neurotoxic, suggesting that systemic metabolism plays an important role in the development of neurotoxicity. The nature of the metabolite(s) responsible for MDA- and MDMA-mediated neurotoxicity is unclear. alpha-Methyldopamine is a major metabolite of MDA and is readily oxidized to the o-quinone, followed by conjugation with glutathione (GSH). Because the conjugation of quinones with GSH frequently results in preservation or enhancement of biological (re)activity, we have been investigating the role of quinone-thioethers in the acute and long-term neurochemical changes observed after administration of MDA. Although intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine (4 x 720 nmol) and 5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine (1 x 7 nmol) to Sprague-Dawley rats produced overt behavioral changes similar to those seen following administration of MDA (93 mumol/kg, s.c.) they did not produce long-term decreases in brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) concentrations. In contrast, 2,5-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine (4 x 475 nmol) decreased 5-HT levels by 24%, 65% and 30% in the striatum, hippocampus and cortex, respectively, 7 days after injection. The relative sensitivity of the striatum, hippocampus and cortex to 2,5-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine was the same as that observed for MDA; the absolute effects were greater with MDA. The effects of 2,5-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine were also selective for serotonergic nerve terminal fields, in that 5-HT levels were unaffected in regions of the cell bodies. Because 2,5-bis-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine caused long-term depletion in 5-HT without adversely affecting the dopaminergic system, it also mimics the selectivity of MDA/MDMA. The data imply a possible role for quinone-thioethers in the neurobehavioral and neurotoxicological effects of MDA/MDMA.
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