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Broening HW, Morford LL, Inman-Wood SL, Fukumura M, Vorhees CV. 
“3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy)-Induced Learning and Memory Impairments Depend on the Age of Exposure during Early Development”. 
Journal of Neuroscience. 2001 May 1;21(9):3228-35.
Use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) has increased dramatically in recent years, yet little is known about its effects on the developing brain. Neonatal rats were administered MDMA on days 110 or 1120 (analogous to early and late human third trimester brain development). MDMA exposure had no effect on survival but did affect body weight gain during treatment. After treatment, body weight largely recovered to 9095% of controls. MDMA exposure on days 1120 resulted in dose-related impairments of sequential learning and spatial learning and memory, whereas neonatal rats exposed on days 110 showed almost no effects. At neither stage of exposure did MDMA-treated offspring show effects on swimming ability or cued learning. Brain region-specific dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine changes were small and were not correlated to learning changes. These findings suggest that MDMA may pose a previously unrecognized risk to the developing brain by inducing long-term deleterious effects on learning and memory.
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