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Capurro A, Reyes-Paroda M, Olazabal D, Perrone R, Silveira R, Macadar O. 
“Aggressive Behavior and Jamming Avoidance Response in Weakly Electric Fish Gymnotus carapo: Effects of Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)”. 
Comp Biochem Physiol. 1997;118A(3):831-840.
Jamming avoidance response (JAR) and aggressive behavior were evaluated in pairs of weakly electric fish Gymnotus carapo. JAR consists of brief frequency increases of the electric organ discharge (EOD) of the faster fish of the pair when a coincidence between the EODs is close to occur. Aggressive behavior is known to be very strong and robust in this species. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) treatment significantly decreased the intensity of aggressive behavior while it increases the intensity and probability of occurrence of JAR. After MDMA treatment, the aggressive behavior was replaced by a distinct nonaggressive ('friendly') type of interaction. In addition to JAR, other behaviors, such as novelty response to visual stimuli, were enhanced with MDMA treatment, suggesting that the effects of this drug on aggressive behavior were not due to a general depression of all behavioral displays. Comparative aspects of the described behavioral changes with the effects of MDMA in humans are discussed.
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