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Arria AM, Yacoubian GS, Fost E, Wish ED. 
“Ecstasy Use Among Club Rave Attendees”. 
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Mar 05;156(3):295-6.
The 'rave' phenomenon-loud music, flashing lights, and frenzied all-night dancing-has been a major element in the resurgence of psychedelic drug use in Western society.' Purportedly central to raves is the use of 'club drugs,' including 3,4-methylenedioxy- methamphetamine, also called MDMA or ecstasy.' The use of ecstasy seems to be increasing worldwide, with rave attendees being a high-risk population. Because these drugs have potentially serious physical and psychological consequences, such as anxiety, memory loss, paranoia, depression, cognitive impairment, cardiac complications, and kidney failure,2-3 the rave phenomenon has sparked the attention of health officials and policy makers. However, to our knowledge, no studies have collected self-report or objective drug use information from rave attendees in the United States.

Our study estimated the prevalence of ecstasy use among a sample of rave attendees. Self-reported drug use information and saliva specimens were collected from attendees of raves at 5 nightclubs in the Baltimore-Washington corridor between 1 Am and 4 Am during the fall of 2000. A total of 148 club rave attendees were approached for interviewing. Respondents were mostly male, white, and had generally attained at least 12 years of education. 85 of 96 respondents reported lifetime use of ecstasy. Salivary samples were analyzed for the presence of MDMA via an unspecified method in a laboratory, and 20% (approximately 19 of 96) had positive results.
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