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van de Wijngaart GF, Braam R, de Bruin D, Fris M, Maalste NJM, Verbraeck HT. 
“Ecstasy use at large-scale dance events in the Netherlands.”. 
Journal of Drug Issues. 1999 Sum;29(3):679-702.
In the 1980's, MDMA appeared on the Dutch market. The popular use of MDMA and MDMA-analogs (commonly known as ecstasy) spread quickly in the second half of the 1980's, especially at large-scale dance events. After prohibition in 1988, the ecstasy market became 'polluted', adding an extra risk factor to its use. The Dutch government showed concern, and the Health Department initiated a research program. The Utrecht University Addiction Research Institute (CVO) condonducted a socio-epidemiological study into the nature and extent of, and the risks involved in, ecstasy use at dance events. More than one thousand respondents participated in the study. This article focuses on the methodology and results of the study. Applied methods included observations, written questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and urine sampling.
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