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Lee HY, Hart NH, Kalmus GW. 
“Teratology Effects of LSD in Explanted Early Chick Embryos.”. 
Teratology. 1975;11(2):187-192.
Teratologic effects of LSD (Delysid, Sandoz) in explanted early chick embryos are reported. Methods Chick embryos were explanted at stages 4-7, placed on basic medium (Ringer-agar plus yolk albumen extract medium) with or without LSD, maintained at RT for 3-4 hr and then incubated at 37.5 for 2O hr. After the incubation period, all embryos were examined to determine the degree of neural-fold fusion, arrange - ment, shape and number of somite pairs and pulsatile activity of the heart. Serial sections of embryos were examined, particular attention being given to nitotic activity in malformed structures. Another study was also carried out to determine if embryos retained the ability to recover from a short exposure to LSD. Embryos were placed on basic medium with or without LSD 10 1lg/ml; following4-5 hr of incubation at 37.5, embryos were washed in chick Ringer's solution, subaultured for lb hr on plain basic medium and examined as before. Results With LSD 0.1-4 mg/ml, no consistent patterns of abnormality were seen. Irrespective of the Stage at transplantation, progressive - ly larger doses of LSD resulted in higher percentages of abnormal and dead embryos. At any stage, LSD 10 mcg/ml caused abnormalit - ies in axial structures, particularly somites" in> 500f embryos. Neural tube closure was inhibited in> 500f-embryos explanted at stages 4-5; absence of paraxial mesoderm segmentation or a reduced number of somites was evident. LSD Had no apparent effect on heart morphigenesis, but significantly lowered pulse rate. Serial sections of adversely affected embryos revealed that LSD exerted cytotoxic effects mainly on Hensen's node, invaginating mesoblast, and somite mesoderm. However, LSD at embryotoxic doses caused alterations in neither cell morphology nor mitotic activity. Embryos retained the ability to undergo normal morphogenesis when, after 4-5 he treatment with LSD, they were subcultured on plain medium.
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