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North RA, Henderson G. 
“Action of Morphine on Guinea-Pig Myerteric Plexus and Mouse Vas deferens Studied by Intracellular Recording”. 
Life Sci.. 1975;17(1):63-66.
The site and characteristics of morphine action were studied using guinea-pig myenteric plexus and mouse vas deferns. Intracellular recordings were taken from individual ganglion muscle cells of mouse vas deferens, responses to the effects of drugs on synaptic transmission being observed. 2 Distinct types of cell were found in the myernteric plexus, although morphine (1-10 mcg), greatly prolonged by physostigmine and could be mimicked by iontophoretic application of acetylcholine to the cell soma; however, the epsp thus produced was not depressed by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 25 nM-1 mcg), antagonised by cyproheptadine, methysergide and lysergic acid diethylamid. In contrast, 5-HT (1mcg) and noradrenaline produced a reversible hyperpolarization and fall in input resistance in type 2 cells. In mouse smooth muscle cells, the dose-dependent actions of normaorphine and morphine (50 mcg-5mcg), which depressed the amplitude of the excitatory junction potentials (ejp) produced reporoduced by levorphanol but not by dextrorphan. The resting were unaffected by normorphine. conclusion Morphine acts directly to reduce transmitter release at the neuro-effector junctions in the guinea-pig myenteric plexus and mouse vas deferens.
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