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Appel JB, White FJ, Kuhn DM. 
“The Use of Drugs as Discriminative Stimuli in Behavioral Pharmacodynamics”. 
Psychopharmacology. 1978;58(2):3.
Compounds that act as discriminative stimuli have proven useful in the analysis of the neuronal mechanism(s) which mediate their behavioral effects (behavioral pharmacodynamics). This is probably because such (interoceptive) stimuli are explicitely paired with behavioral consequences and therefore are carefully attended by the subject. The mechanism of such drugs as amphetamines. anticholinergics, opiates, opiate antagonists, and hallucinogens were studied using this procedure. The relationship between LSD, quipazine, anticholinergic hallucinogens (atropine, ditran, phencyclidine) and the serotonergic (5-HT) neuronal system were investigated. The discriminative stimulus properties of LSD and quipazine were identical and similar to those of (other) 5 - HT agonists (e.g. fenfluramine). They partially mimic those of anticholinergics, are blocked by 5-HT but not by dopamine (DA) antagonists and are unaffected by manipulations which alter the reuptake of 5-HT. The results were interpreted to indicate that post-synaptic 5-HT or, possibly, hallucinogen receptors mediate the discriminative properties of both LSD and quipazine.
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