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Holz WC, Gill CA. 
“Drug Injections as Negative Reinforcers.”. 
Pharmacol.Rev.. 1975;27(3):437-46.
Experiments on drugs as negative reinforcers within the framework of operant conditioning principles mainly in monkey are discussed in a review. In the case of drugs as negative reinforcers, an analysis must consider their times of onset and duration of action. In an operant analysis, negative reinforcement is defined strictly in terms of its effect on the future emission of response. Otherwise pharmacological properties of drugs like chlorpromazine or drug side-effects would lead to wrong conclusions. Many negative reinforcers act in punishment procedures. In reports in which nalorphine is substituted for codeine or cocaine, fenfluramine for cocaine (drugs given i.v.) or in experiments comparing chlorpromazine, saline and imipramine, the punishing effect of drugs was studied as responding was undergoing extinction. The Author describes a technique which investigates the punishment of non-reinforced responding in another way. The ideal method of investigating drugs as punishers is defined. A conditioned suppression in which an electric shock is paired with an otherwise neutral light has been expensively used. Drugs have also been studied in procedures in which responding terminated drug infusions and associated stimuli. Drugs studied were nalorphine, naloxone, pentazocine, propiram furnarate, cyclazocine, LSD, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)2-propylamine- hydrochloride, dexamphetamine, chlorpromazine, imipramine, pentobarbitone, d-methylamphetamine, codeine and cocaine.
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