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Jacobs BL, Trulson ME, Stern WC. 
“An Animal Behavior Model for Studying the Actions of LSD and Related Hallucinogens.”. 
Science. 1976;194(4266):741-43.
The actions of LSD and related hallucinogens were studied. Adult female cats received 10-100 mcg/kg i.p., LSD or saline. Each cat received each treatment at 8 day intervals and behavior was observed by raters, 'blind' to treatment. LSD produced a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of abortive grooming and limb flicking. There was a very low frequency of these behaviors in saline-treated animals but they were often dominant in LSD-treated cats. The highly stereotyped response was easy to observe and quantify. Low doses (25 3,g/kg), but not high doses (0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) of methysergide, 0.25-5 mg/kg d-amphetamine, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg atropine, 1-20 mg/kg caffeine and 0.5-5 mg/kg chlorpheniramine maleate, tyramine and delta-9-THC did not elicit the stereotyped behaviors. Psilocybine (50-100 mcg/kg i.p.) a hallucinogen with an indole nucleus, also produced limb flicking and abortive grooming. Conclusions Limb flicking and abortive grooming behaviors are reliable and quantifiable methods of studying the effects of LSD and related hallucinogens.
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