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Mehl E, Rüther E, Redemann J. 
“Endogenous Ligands of a Putative LSD-Serotonin Receptor in the Cerebrospinal Fluid: Higher Level of LSD-Displacing Factors (LDF) in Unmedicated Psychotic Patients”. 
Psychopharmacology. 1977;54(1):9-16.
The concentration of LSD-displacing factors (LDF) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied in neuroleptic-resistant and in neuroleptic responsive acute psychotic patients. - 19 Acute psychotic patients (aged 19-68 ye) with schizophrenia, psychosis, hebephrenia, and alcohol hallucinosis received no psychoactive drugs for 1 mth before study. 4/19 Had previously received neuroleptics, including thioridazine. CSF samples were collected from the patients and from controls (18 healthy subjects and 31 with neurological disorders). After lumbar puncture, 15 psychotic patients received haloperidol (H) (8-14 mg/day) for 3Q days, 1 received H for 3 days, then electroconvulsive therapy and then other neuroleptics. 1 Received H for 10 days then changed to clazapine, and 2 received clozapine throughout (25-200 mg/day). LDFs were assayed in CSF by incubation of synaptosomal membrane fractions from pig cerebral cortex with 2 nM 3H-LSD 21 Ci/mM, Amersham Buchler, and 0.15 Or 0.3 ml CSF. Incubation of pig cerebral membrane with 3H-LSD and CSF caused a reduction in binding of 3H-LSD to high-affinity LSDbinding sites. Column chromatography was used to separate LDF from proteins and inorganic salts. It was anionic at pH 7.4. LDF concentration in untreated psychotics was significantly higher (5.55 U/ml) than in controls (3.56 U/ml). In psychotic cases, there was a high positive correlation between clinical improvement on neuroleptic medication and LDF concentration before drug therapy. 10 Cases showing marked improvement Or full remission under neuroleptic therapy had significantly higher (6.34 U/ml) LDF values than 9 cases showing some or no improvement (4.74 U/ml). It is suggested that the serotonin-dopamine balance may be affected in acute psychosis.
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