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Messier PE. 
“The Effect of LSD on the Surface of Neuroepithelial Cells”. 
Toxicology. 1977;8(3):301-10.
The effect of LSD on the surface of neuroopithelial cells was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) or transmission electron microscope (TEM). 22-30 Hr chick embryos were explanted and cultured for 5 hr at 38 on Spratts medium containing 50 mcg LSD/ml medium. Embryos were fixed for 20 hr in 2.5 0lutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer. They were then cut transversely beneath the hind brain and sections fixed in osmium tetroxide. Dried specimens were examined by SEM. With TEM,the effect of labeling the neuroepithelium membrane with ruthenium, cationized ferritin (Miles-Ames) or lanthanum was compared. In SEM, normal embryos showed a neuroepithelium that had invaginated and closed into a round shaped neural tube. Specimens exposed to LSD, showed collapse of the roof of the neural tube which often closed the neurocoele completely. Cells composing the neuroepithelium of the normal embryo were elongated and formed a pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Cells possessed a slender cytoplasmic process containing the interphase nucleus which was discernible as a bulge along the cell body. In embryos exposed to the LSD, the cells were turgid, swollen and with straight walls. Loss of a distinctive contour prevented location of the nucleus. In embryos grown on unmodified medium cytoplasmic projections protruded at random from the cell surface. Following LSD treatment, majority of cells had lost most of the projections. In TEM, the use of ruthenium red gave comparable results whether it was applied to controls or LSD-treated specipens. The label was attached to the surface of the apical membrane of the neuroepithelial cells in the form of a dark line. Cationized ferritin which was attached in a continuous fashion at the surface of the cells in control embryos was found as a discontinuous line in LSD treated embryos. In controls, lanthanum was bound to the cell surface in the form of an uninterrupted dark line whereas in treated embryos it was a discontinuous dark line.
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