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Marquardt GM, DiStefano V, Ling LL. 
“Pharmacological effects of (+/-)-, (S)-, and (R)-MDA”. 
Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogens. 1976;p84-87.
MDA is recognized as a frequently abused drug within our drug subculture (26) The ingestion of 1.0-1.5 mg/kg of MDA.HC1 has been reported to result in a sense of well-being, increased taste sensations, heightened self awareness, increased introspectiveness, and general mood elevation (1,26,49). Although MDA does not cause the colorful imagery and marked distortion of reality produced by other hallucinogens (e.g , LSD), it produces distinct visual and related sensory changes (peripheral visual field changes and auditory hyperacuity), creates a "three-dimensionality" to music, and sometimes causes visual imagery which disappears when the subieet concentrates his attention on it (126,49). The only adverse reaction to moderate doses (1.0-1.5 mg/kg MDA HC1) seems to be a marked physical exhaustion, lasting as long as two days after ingestion (26,42). Larger doses of MDA (7.5 mg/kg) cause clonic convulsions which may develop into tonic convulsions and death (43). Several deaths resulting from the ingestion of MDA have been reported in the United States and Canada (48). Despite this mortality, the illicit use of MDA continues. Unfortunately, Louria (31) is substantially correct when he states that very little is known about MDA. Thiessen and Cook (48) have reviewed the MDA literature. They stated that the study by Gunn et al. (18) was the most comprehensive examination of the pharmacologic effects of MDA. The latter report demonstrated that effects of MDA on motor activity, respiratory rate, blood pressure and uterine and intestinal contractions were similar to those produced by amphetamine. Ogawa (40) and Daly et al. (10) have suggested that MDA produces sympathomimetic effects by an indirect, amphetamine-like action involving the release of norepinephrine (NE) from noradrenergic nerve terminals and inhibition of the reuptake of NE.
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