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Gamma A, Buck A, Berthold T, Liechti ME, Vollenweider FX. 
“3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Modulates Cortical and Limbic Brain Activity as Measured by [H2 15 O]-PET in Healthy Humans”. 
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000;23(4):388-395.
[H(2)(15)O]-Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used to examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after administration of a single oral dose of the serotonin realeaser and uptake inhibitor MDMA (1.7 mg/kg) or placebo to 16 MDMA-naive subjects. Psychological changes were assessed by psychometric rating scales. MDMA produced distributed changes in regional blood flow including increases in ventromedial frontal and occipital cortex, inferior temporal lobe and cerebellum; and decreases in the motor and somatosensory cortex, temporal lobe including left amygdala, cingulate cortex, insula and thalamus. Concomitant with these changes, subjects experienced heightened mood, increased extroversion, slight derealization and mild perceptual alterations. MDMA also produced increases in blood pressure and several side effects such as jaw clenching, lack of appetite and difficulty concentrating. These results indicate that a distributed cluster of brain areas underlie the various effects of MDMA in humans.
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