Erowid References Database
Boot BP, McGregor IS, Hall W.
“MDMA (Ecstasy) neurotoxicity: assessing and communicating the risks”.
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is an amphetamine analogue that produces euphoric and stimulant effects and a feeling of closeness towards others.1,2 For more than a decade, MDMA (colloquially known as 'Ecstasy' or 'E') has been widely used by young adults as a dance-party drug.
The usual recreational oral dose is 1-2 tablets (each containing about 60-120 mg of MDMA) a standard oral dose of 0.75-4.0 mg per kg in 60-80kg people. MDMA is typically used once fortnightly or less because tolerance to the effects of MDMA develops rapidly. More frequent use requires larger doses to achieve the desired effects, but this increases the prevalence of unpleasant side-effects.
A number of deaths have occurred as a result of malignant hyperthermia or idiosyncractic reactions to the drug, but these have been rare.4 MDMA is perceived by many users to be a safe drug.1 Few report the craving associated with opiates or cocaine 3 and most MDMA users are aware of only mild and transient disruptions of functioning. 3,5 The perceived safety of MDMA is at odds with animal evidence of MDMA neurotoxicity, an increasing prevalence of hazardous patterns of use among recreational MDMA users, and emerging evidence of neurotoxicity among heavier MDMA users. typical in human users. Moreover, in animal studies MDMA is often injected subcutaneously, which in monkeys is two to three times more neurotoxic than the oral route preferred by human users.
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