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Colado MI, Green AR. 
“A study of the mechanism of MDMA ('ecstasy')-induced neurotoxicity of 5-HT neurones using chlormethiazole, dizocilpine and other protective compounds”. 
Br J Pharmacol. 1994;111(1):131-6.
1. An investigation has been made in rats into the neurotoxic effect of the relatively selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotoxin, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'Ecstasy') using chlormethiazole and dizocilpine, both known neuroprotective compounds and also gamma-butyrolactone, ondansetron and pentobarbitone.

2. Administration of MDMA (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) resulted in a 50% loss of cortical and hippocampal 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) 4 days later. This reflects the long term neurotoxic loss of 5-HT that occurs. Injection of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL; 400 mg kg-1, i.p.) 5 min before and 55 min after the MDMA provided substantial protection. Pentobarbitone (25 mg kg-1, i.p.) using the same dose regime was also protective, but ondansetron (0.5 mg kg-1 or 0.1 mg kg-1, i.p.) was without effect.

3. MDMA (20 mg kg-1) had no significant effect on striatal dopamine concentration 4 days later but did produce a small decrease in 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content. There were few significant changes in rats given MDMA plus GBL, ondansetron or pentobarbitone.

4. A single injection of MDMA (20 mg kg-1, i.p.) resulted in a greater than 80% depletion of 5-HT in hippocampus and cortex 4 h later, reflecting the initial rapid release that had occurred. None of the neuroprotective compounds (chlormethiazole, 50 mg kg-1; dizocilpine, 1 mg kg-1; GBL, 400 mg kg-1; pentobarbitone, 25 mg kg-1) given 5 min before and 55 min after the MDMA injection, altered the degree of 5-HT loss.

5. Acute MDMA injection increased striatal dopamine content (28%) and decreased the DOPAC content. In general, administration of the drugs under investigation did not significantly alter these MDMA-induced changes. Both chlormethiazole and GBL produced a greater increase in dopamine than MDMA alone, but this was apparently an additive effect to the action of either drug alone.

6. The 5-HT loss 4h following administration of the neurotoxin p-chloroamphetamine (2.5 mg/kg - i.p.) was not affected by chlormethiazole or dizocilpine, p-Chloroamphetamine did not appear to alter striatal dopamine metabolism.

7. None of the protective drugs inhibited the initial 5-HT loss following MDMA, rendering unlikely any proposal that they are protective because they inhibit 5-HT release and the subsequent formation of a toxic indole derivative. All the protective compounds (unlike ondansetron) probably inhibit dopamine release in the striatum. Since the neurotoxic action of some substituted amphetamines is dependent on I[t the integrity of nigro-striatal neurones, this fact may go some way to explain the protective action of this diverse group of compounds.
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