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Fitzgerald JL, Reid JJ. 
“Sympathomimetic Actions of Methylenedioxymethamphetamine in Rat and Rabbit Isolated Cardiovascular Tissues”. 
J Pharm Pharmacol. 1994;46(10):826-32.
The aim of this study was to investigate the actions of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in several isolated cardiovascular tissues. In spontaneously beating rat atria, concentration-dependent positive chronotropic responses to MDMA and amphetamine were blocked by the neuronal-uptake inhibitor desipramine (1 microM) and the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (1 microM). In atria incubated with [3H]noradrenaline to label transmitter stores, 10 microM MDMA and 1 microM amphetamine increased the resting outflow of radioactivity, while 1 microM desipramine had no effect on resting outflow. The MDMA- and amphetamine-induced release of radioactivity were blocked by 1 microM desipramine. MDMA, amphetamine and desipramine each enhanced the electrical stimulation-induced (2 Hz, 30-s train) release of radioactivity; the enhancing effects of MDMA and amphetamine were blocked by 1 microM desipramine. In rat isolated perfused hearts, MDMA (1 and 10 microM) increased heart rate by a similar amount to the increase caused by noradrenaline (10 and 50 nM). MDMA also induced dysrhythmias in 7 out of 11 rat isolated perfused heart preparations. In rabbit isolated perfused and superfused ear arteries preloaded with [3H]noradrenaline, MDMA increased the resting release of radioactivity by 230 +/- 18% (n = 6) of control resting release; the increase was accompanied by a rise in perfusion pressure of 17 +/- 7 mmHg (n = 6). MDMA also facilitated the vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline (3-9 ng) and perivascular nerve stimulation (1-5 Hz, 10-s train). MDMA-induced vasoconstriction and the facilitation of vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline and electrical stimulation were blocked by 1 microM desipramine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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