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Fitzgerald RL, Blanke RV, Poklis A. 
“Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine in the rat”. 
Chirality. 1990;2(4):241-8.
Studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of MDMA were conducted in rats using the iliac arterial cannulation. Two routes of administration, intravenous and subcutaneous, were evaluated at two dose levels for each route [20 and 40 mg/kg (+/-)-MDMA for subcutaneous, 10 and 20 mg/kg (+/-)-MDMA for intravenous administrations]. The average half-life (+/- SD) for all dosing groups was 2.5 +/- 0.8 h for (-)-(R)-MDMA and 2.2 +/- 0.8 h for (+)-(S)-MDMA. The more rapid clearance of (+)-(S)-MDMA compared with (-)-(R)-MDMA is consistent with the area under the curve (AUC) data of the parent drug and its primary metabolite MDA. The mean (+/- SD) AUC S/R ratios of MDMA and MDA were 0.70 +/- 0.05 and 3.1 +/- 0.8, respectively. Following a 20 mg/kg dose of racemic MDMA iv the mean (+/- SD) of the percent dose excreted as (-)-(R)-MDMA, (+)-(S)-MDMA, (-)-(R)-MDA, and (+)-(S)-MDA were 20 +/- 10, 12 +/- 6, 3 +/- 1, and 6 +/- 2, respectively.
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