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Chemic Labs. 
“Evaluation Of Volcano® Vaporizer For The Efficient Emission Of THC, CBD, CBN And The Significant Reduction And/Or Elimination Of Polynuclear-Aromatic (PNA) Analytes Resultant Of Pyrolysis”. 2003 May;Web Article.
INTRODUCTION: Investigations of THC, CBD, and CBN evolution by use of vaporizer methodologies were completed using a vaporizer device (Volcano®: Vapormed 78532). The Cannabis sativa (marijuana) used in this study was produced by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and obtained from the Drug Detection Laboratory (Sacramento, CA) from a sample submitted to it by a medical marijuana patient in FDA’s Compassionate IND program. Approximately 200 mg of finely screened, homogeneous Cannabis sativa (marijuana) was “loaded” into the Volcano® atomizing system. The Cannabis was heated to a mean temperature of approximately 155-218oC and the evolved vapor collected in the device collection trap (e.g., manufacturer supplied balloon and/or 250 mL Supelco gas trap). Subsequently, the vapor entrapped by the collection apparatus was transferred to a methanol vapor trap and a portion of the concentrated sample quantitatively assayed using High Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Diode Array- Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) analysis techniques. Gaseous samples obtained from the vaporizer device were additionally assayed using a semi-quantitative Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical method for the detection of polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds as well as additional resolved tentatively identified compounds. In order to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the percent (e.g., w/w) cannabinoids evolved from the plant material using the Volcano® system, additional Cannabis samples (e.g., ~ 200 mg) were extracted using solvent (e.g., ethanol) Sohxlet extraction and combustion (e.g., M1) extraction sample preparation techniques.


This study was completed to provide evidence of product (Volcano®) efficacy to MAPS and CaNORML, to be submitted to Dr. Donald Abrams, UC San Francisco, who would subsequently design and seek agency (FDA) approval for the protocol development and initiation of a phase I clinical investigation comparing cannabinoid blood levels in subjects smoking (i.e., pyrolysis) Cannabis versus Cannabis vaporized with the Volcano® vaporizer system. This concept was initially based on visual observations of patients who used a device to heat versus combust the Cannabis material. The desired Cannabis effect was obtained. This observation led to a concept, which suggested that by reducing the amount of heat (i.e., < combustion) applied to the Cannabis material, the desired cannabinoid compounds can be released and captured in the absence of those compounds which are undesirable (i.e. PNA).
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