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Filip R, Lopez P, Coussio J, Ferraro G. 
“Mate substitutes or adulterants: study of xanthine content”. 
Phytotherapy Research. 1998;12(2):129-131.
The xanthine (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) content of decoctions of seven Ilex spp. was studied by HPLC using UV and a photodiode-array detector. Ilex paraguariensis (Mate or Yerba Mate) is widely used in South America as a tealike beverage and the other six species are used as substitutes or adulterants of it. The results showed that I. paraguariensis has the highest amounts of caffeine and theobromine. Traces of caffeine were detected in I. theezans, I. dumosa, I. microdonta and I. pseudobuxus. Traces of theobromine were detected in I. argentina and I. microdonta. From the seven Ilex species investigated, theophylline was detected in I. theezans, I. dumosa and I. pseudobuxus, but only I. pseudobuxus has quantifiable amounts: 0.6 mg% (6 ppm).
Notes # : yerba mate
Comments and Responses to this Article
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Apr 17, 2011 1:59
1.9% Caffeine #

They found no caffeine in any of the other Ilex species tested and found a fairly high 1.9% caffeine content in the yerba mate extracted with 20 minute boiling water, cooled, and then filtered, analyzed by HPLC. Consistent with other papers showing 0.3% to 2.0% with single-steep warm and hot water extractions.
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