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Hewitt KE, Green AR. 
“Chlormethiazole, dizocilpine and haloperidol prevent the degeneration of serotonergic nerve terminals induced by administration of MDMA ('Ecstasy') to rats”. 
Neuropharmacology. 1994;33(12):1589-95.
An investigation has been made into the effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'Ecstasy') administration on the concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), uptake of [3H]5-HT and [3H]paroxetine binding in rat cerebral cortex tissue. Four days after 2 injections of MDMA (20 mg/kg i.p., 6 hr apart) the concentrations of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA were reduced by 60%. The binding of [3H]paroxetine to the presynaptic 5-HT transporter was decreased and high affinity uptake of [3H]5-HT was reduced by a similar amount, indicating neurodegeneration of 5-HT terminals. Pretreatment with chlormethiazole (100 mg/kg i.p.), 10 min before each MDMA injection prevented the decrease in both [3H]parotextine binding and uptake of [3H]5-HT. The loss in 5-HT and 5-HIAA content was also attenuated. Pretreatment with dizocilpine (1 mg/kg i.p.) or haloperidol (2 mg/kg i.p.) also prevented the MDMA-induced loss of [3H]paroxetine binding and attenuated the loss of 5-HT and 5-HIAA content. All three compounds also decreased the degree of hyperthermia that follows MDMA administration, although previous studies suggest that the long term neurodegeneration is not associated with the acute hyperthermic response. These data support the findings of others that MDMA injection produces degeneration of 5-HT nerve terminals in the cortex, confirm that chlormethiazole, dizocilpine and haloperidol attenuate MDMA-induced neurotoxic loss of 5-HT and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds prevent the neurodegeneration of 5-HT nerve terminals that follows MDMA administration.
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