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Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ.
“Effect of grapefruit juice dose on grapefruit juice-triazolam interaction: repeated consumption prolongs triazolam half-life”.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Aug;56(5):411-5.
OBJECTIVE: Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of several drugs during first pass. In this study, the effect of grapefruit juice dose on the extent of grapefruit juice-triazolam interaction was investigated.
METHODS: In a randomised, four-phase, crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers received 0.25 mg triazolam with water, with 200 ml normal-strength or double-strength grapefruit juice or, on the third day of multiple-dose [three times daily (t.i.d.)] administration of double-strength grapefruit juice. Timed blood samples were collected up to 23 h after dosing, and the effects of triazolam were measured with four psychomotor tests up to 10 h after dosing.
RESULTS: The area under the plasma triazolam concentration time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) was increased by 53% (P < 0.01), 49% (P < 0.01) and 143% (P < 0.001) by a single dose of normal-strength, a single dose of double-strength and multiple-dose administration of double-strength grapefruit juice, respectively. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of triazolam was increased by about 40% by a single dose of normal-strength grapefruit juice (P < 0.01) and multiple-dose grapefruit juice (P < 0.01) and by 25% by a single dose of double-strength grapefruit juice (P < 0.05). The elimination half-life (t(1/2)) of triazolam was prolonged by 54% during the multiple-dose grapefruit juice phase (P < 0.001). A significant increase in the pharmacodynamic effects of triazolam was seen during the multiple-dose grapefruit juice phase in the digit symbol substitution test (DSST, P < 0.05), in subjective overall drug effect (P < 0.05) and in subjective drowsiness (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Even one glass of grapefruit juice increases plasma triazolam concentrations, but repeated consumption of grapefruit juice produces a significantly greater increase in triazolam concentrations than one glass of juice. The t(1/2) of triazolam is prolonged by repeated consumption of grapefruit juice, probably due to inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4 activity.
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