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Jacob P III, Shulgin A. 
“Structure-Activity Relationships of the Classic Hallucinogens and Their Analogs”. 
NIDA Research Monograph. 1994 Oct;146:74-91.
The path that leads to the appearance of a new psychotropic drug in the practice of medicine usually consists of four stages: discovery of activity, the development of animal behavioral models that can be correlated to this activity, the study of mechanisms of action and nature of toxicity, and the demonstration of effectiveness and benefit. The final studies of effectiveness for drugs intended for human use must be done in human subjects. This is the essence of the Phases 1 through 4 studies found in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations associated with the investigatory new drug (IND) application. With many drug families, the results of the animal model studies (steps 2 and 3) can allow prediction of new drug structures (step 1). However, with research in the hallucino- genic drugs (where the desired pharmacological activity can be demon- strated only in humans), the confirmation of activity must occur of necessity in humans. Therefore, it is of potential value for future research in this area to bring together in a single review the known human potencies of the classic hallucinogens and their analogs.
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