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Ko WS, Park TY, Park C, Kim YH, Yoon HJ, Lee SY, Hong SH, Choi BT, Lee YT, Choi YH. 
“Induction of apoptosis by Chan Su, a traditional Chinese medicine, in human bladder carcinoma T24 cells”. 
Oncol Rep. 2005 Aug;14(2):475-80.
Chan Su is a traditional Chinese medicine prepared from the dried white secretion of the auricular and skin glands of toads, and has been used as an Oriental drug. However, little is known about the effect of Chan Su on the growth of human cancer cells. This study was undertaken to investigate the underlying mechanism of Chan Su-induced apoptosis in a human bladder carcinoma cell line, T24. The effects of this compound were also tested on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. Treatment of T24 cells with Chan Su resulted in the inhibition of viability and induction of apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner, which was proved by trypan blue counts, DAPI staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometric analysis. Apoptosis of T24 cells by Chan Su was associated with a down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(S/L) expression and an up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax expression. Chan Su treatment induced the proteolytic activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, and a concomitant degradation of poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase and beta-catenin protein. Furthermore, Chan Su decreased the levels of COX-2 mRNA and protein expression without significant changes in the levels of COX-1, which was correlated with an inhibition in prostaglandin E(2) synthesis. Taken together, these findings partially provide novel insights into the possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer activity of Chan Su.
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