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Pittel SM, Calef V, Gryler RB, Hilles L, Hofer R, Kempner P. 
“Developmental factors in adolescent drug users”. 
Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. 1971 Oct;10(4):640-60.
This paper is concerned with the backgrounds and developmental histories of a group of approximately 250 volunteer subjects who identify themselves with the hippie community of San Francisco. Although many of them entered the hippie culture after the 1967 "summer of love" which first attracted thousands of young people to the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood, as a group these subjects are quite comparable to the stereotype of the original "flower children." Unlike the "street people" and "hard" drug users who have come to dominate the public image of the Haight-Ashbury today, these subjects exhibit most of the characteristics of dress, personal appearance, values, attitudes, and patterns of drug use of the early hippie population. A comparison of the biographical characteristics and MMPI profiles of these subjects with a group of hippies drawn from the original residents of the neighborhood failed to show any significant differences between the groups (Kendall and Pittel, 1971). Even though they do not share the naive Utopianism of the early hippies. and are forced to live in a less idyllic setting than might have been found a few years ago, we have good reason to believe that they are representative of those young people who first drew our attention to the hippie phenomenon.
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