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Tronick EZ, Beeghly M. 
“Effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine on newborn behavior and development”. 
Office for Substance Abuse Prevention: Monograph 11: Identifying the Needs of Drug-Affected Children. 1992 Oct 16;p25-48.
Since the 1980s, the prevalence of prenatal infants exposed to cocaine has dramatically escalated, accompanied by an unprecedented level of medical, scientific, and popular awareness. A general conservative estimate is that about 11 percent of infants born nationwide are now exposed to cocaine in utero. In this monograph chapter, current studies are critically reviewed. Confounding effects of other toxic substances commonly used by cocaine-using pregnant women such as alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and opiates, as well as a combination of these and other drugs, are also examined. Positive reasons for the inconsistencies reported across studies are offered from the perspective of a transactional model of development. The discussion focuses on the often neglected but crucial role of the social environment in determining development and behavioral outcomes for infants. This discussion leads to the conclusion that a reliable or generalizable set of facts about the specific effects of cocaine on infant behavior and development is still elusive.
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