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Lamb RJ, Griffiths RR. 
“Self-injection of d,1-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the baboon”. 
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1987;91(3):268-72.
MDMA (d,1-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine HCl; 'ecstasy') self-injection (0.1-3.2 mg/kg/injection) was examined in baboons under conditions in which baseline responding was maintained by intravenous injections of cocaine HCl (0.32 mg/kg/injection). Drug was available under a FR 160-response schedule of intravenous injection. Each drug injection was followed by a 3-h time out allowing a maximum of eight injections per day. MDMA or MDMA vehicle (saline) was substituted for cocaine for a period of 14 or more days followed by a return to the cocaine baseline. MDMA (0.32-3.2 mg/kg/inj) maintained more injections and higher responses rates than were maintained by saline. The maximal number of injections maintained by MDMA and the maximal response rate maintained by MDMA were less than those maintained under baseline conditions with cocaine. The highest dose of MDMA tested maintained a cyclic pattern of self-injection, i.e., days of high numbers of injections intermixed with days of low numbers of injections. At the highest dose of MDMA tested, concurrent food maintained behavior was suppressed to an extent that food intake was also decreased.
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