Plants - Drugs Mind - Spirit Freedom - Law Arts - Culture Library  
Erowid References Database
Duffield AM, Jamieson DD, Lidgard RO, Duffield PH, Bourne DJ. 
“Identification of some human urinary metabolites of the intoxicating beverage kava”. 
J Chromatogr. 1989 Jul 26;475:273-81.
Methane chemical ionization (CI) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used to identify some of the human urinary metabolites of the kava lactones following ingestion of kava prepared by the traditional method of aqueous extraction of Piper methysticum. All seven major, and several minor, kava lactones were identified in human urine. Observed metabolic transformations include the reduction of the 3,4-double bond and/or demethylation of the 4-methoxyl group of the alpha-pyrone ring system. Demethylation of the 12-methoxy substituent in yangonin (or alternatively hydroxylation at C-12 of desmethoxyyangonin) was also recognised. This product was isolated by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of crude urine extracts and characterised by methane CI GC-MS. In contrast to the situation prevailing in the rat no dihydroxylated metabolites of the kava lactones, or products from ring opening of the 2-pyrone ring system, were identified in human urine. GC-MS analysis of urine can be readily utilised to determine whether donors have recently consumed kava.
Comments and Responses to this Article
Submit Comment
[ Cite HTML ]