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Nichols DE, Nichols CD. 
“Serotonin Receptors”. 
Chem Rev. 2008 May 15;108(5):1614-1641.
Serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT),is one of the class of monoamine neurontransmitters, all of which have a chemical template comprised of a basic amino group separated from an aromatic nucleus by a two carbon aliphatic chain. In mammals, 5-HT is biosynthetically derived by two enzymatic steps: (1) ring hydroxylation of the essential amino acid tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting step,1 and (2) side chain decarboxylation by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (Figure 1). A second isoform of tryptophan hydroxylase was identified in 2003 by Walther et al.2,3 The original enzyme originally characterized, which is expressed in the gut, is now called tph1, and the isoform that is expressed exclusively within the brain is named tph2.4,5 In the brain, serotonin is produced within axon terminals, where it is released in response to an action potential and then diffuses across the synapse to activate postsynaptic receptors. The serotonin receptor family is larger than any other family of G-protein coupled (GPCR) neurotransmitter receptors: 13 distinct genes encoding for receptors of the G-protein coupled seven-transmembrane class. In addition, there is one ligand-gated ion channel, the 5-HT3 receptor.
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