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Sakatei M, De Oliveira PCL. 
“Toad envenoming in dogs: effects and treatment”. 
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins. 2000;6(1).
ABSTRACT: Toads (order: Anura; family: Bufonidae; genus: Bufo) are distributed throughout the world, but more species are found in areas of tropical and humid temperate climates. Although toads do not have a venom inoculation system, they are venomous animals because the glands covering the whole surface of their bodies secrete a milk-like venom of which composition is not yet completely known. Some of these glands are the bilateral glands located in post-orbital position. These glands, which are somewhat diamond-shaped and can be seen by the naked eye, are known as parotids. Toad envenoming in dogs may cause local and systemic alterations and may cause death by cardiac ventricular fibrillation. The electrocardiographic alterations observed consist of gradual deterioration of the normal standards with progressive appearance of negative ventricular deflections that can result in ventricular fibrillation and death if the envenomed dog is not promptly treated. Traditional therapy consists mainly of administration of atropine and propranolol; the latter used to prevent ventricular fibrillation.
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