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Latorre AO, Hueza IM, Górniak SL. 
“Association of Ipomoea carnea and BCG reduces birth defects caused by cyclophosphamide in rats”. 
Life Sci. 2007 Jan 01;80(5):430-5.
Immunosuppressive drugs can induce the development of malformations in fetuses of mothers exposed to them, possibly affecting the placental function directly or by crossing the placenta to enter fetal circulation. However, activation of the maternal immune system with well-known immunomodulator substances has been shown to produce a significant decrease in morphological defects caused by diverse teratogenic agents. All of these studies were performed on mice only, whereas the rat is the chosen species for developing teratological studies. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effect of Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) and/or the aqueous fraction (AF) of the plant Ipomoea carnea on the decrease of the teratogenic effect resulting from cyclophosphamide (CP), an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive drug, exposure in pregnant rats. It was verified that both BCG and/or AF attenuated the embryotoxic effects of CP in rats. All immune stimulated dams demonstrated an increase in placenta and fetus body weight. In conclusion, the present work showed that the rat is a good model for performing studies which aim for a clearer understanding of the mechanism by which maternal stimulation reduces malformations and how the association of I. carnea AF and BCG provided improved immunostimulation compared to BCG alone; however, additional studies are required to determine the specific mechanisms by which immune stimulant substances decrease malformation.
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