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Croat TB. 
“The Use of the New World Araceae as Drug Plants”. 
Journal of Japanese Botany. 1994 Mar 12;69:185-203.
The Araceae have been used both internally and externally for medicinal purposes. External use has largely involved plant parts or extracts in poultices applied directly to the affected areas to cauterize, to disinfect, to stop bleeding or to act as a rubefacient. In all, 61 species of Araceae have been used externally for a broad range of medicinal purposes by populations in both North and South America. Principal uses have been as a remedy for sores, infections, aches, poisonous bites, or as an insecticide or vermifuge. Many fewer species, a total of 33, have been used internally for an even broader array of medicinal purposes, including problems of the respiratory system, aches, infections, poisonous bites, sexual diseases, as well as for contraceptives, as purgatives and as hallucinogens.
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