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Avoli M, Barra PF, Brancati A, Eusebi F, Roseghini M. 
“Effects of some phenylalkylamines on Heobania vermiculata nerve cells”. 
Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1978;59(2):173-5.
Abstract--1. The effects of some hydroxyphenylalkylamines on individual neurone's firing patterns in the perioesophageal ganglionic ring of the snail, Heobania vermiculata have been examined. 2. m- and p-tyramine, hordenine, leptodactyline, candicine, as well as acetylcholine and dopamine, were observed to affect the firing pattern of most of the nerve cells tested with perfusion method and ionophoretic application. 3. The action of leptodactyline and candicine was similar to that of acetylcholine in H- and D-cells. 4. The presence of carboxylic group in the tyramine molecule m- and p-tyrosine eliminated the dopamine-like activity. 5. The conversion of quaternary nitrogen of the candicine molecule into a tertiary nitrogen hordenine eliminated the cholinomimetic activity.
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