Erowid References Database
Fallon JK, Kicman AT, Henry JA, Milligan PJ, Cowan DA, Hutt AJ.
“Stereospecific analysis and enantiomeric disposition of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) in humans”.
Clin Chem. 1999 Jul;45(7):1058-69.
BACKGROUND: Little is known concerning the enantioselective disposition of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) in humans. In addition, the potential of utilizing the stereochemical composition of an analyte in biological media for forensic purposes requires investigation.
METHODS: The enantiomers of MDMA and its demethylated metabolite, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), present in plasma and urine extracts were derivatized with (-)-(R)-alpha-methoxy-alpha-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography, respectively. The enantioselective disposition of MDMA and MDA was determined following oral administration of racemic MDMA (40 mg) to eight male volunteers.
RESULTS: The plasma concentrations of (R)-MDMA exceeded those of the S-enantiomer [ratio R:S of the area under the curve (AUC), 2.4 +/- 0.3], and the plasma half-life of (R)-MDMA (5.8 +/- 2.2 h) was significantly longer than that of the S-enantiomer (3.6 +/- 0.9 h). The majority of the recovered material in urine was excreted within 24 h after dosing, with the recovery of (R)-MDMA (21.4% +/- 11.6%) being significantly greater than that of (S)-MDMA (9.3% +/- 4.9%), and with (S)- and (R)-MDA accounting for 1.4% +/- 0.5% and 1.0% +/- 0.3% of the dose, respectively. Mathematical modeling of plasma enantiomeric composition vs sampling time demonstrated the applicability of using stereochemical data for the prediction of time elapsed after drug administration. CONCLUSIONS: Analytical methods for determining the enantiomeric composition of MDMA and MDA in plasma and urine were developed. The disposition of MDMA in humans is stereoselective, with the more active S-enantiomer having a reduced AUC and shorter half-life than (R)-MDMA. The determination of stereochemical composition may be applicable for forensic purposes.
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