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Buttar HS, Moffatt JH, Foster BC. 
“Developmental toxicity of 4-substituted amphetamines in mice”. 
Reprod Toxicol. 1996 Jul-Aug 09;10(4):301-10.
Despite overwhelming and tragic evidence of their detrimental and dangerous consequences, amphetamines remain significant drugs of abuse and addiction. The effects of 4-substituted amphetamines: 4-hydroxyamphetamine 4-HA, 4-methoxyamphetamine 4-MEA, 4-ethoxyamphetamine 4-ETA, 4-propoxyamphetamine 4-PPA, and 4-benzyloxyamphetamine 4-BEA on intrauterine development, pregnancy outcome, postnatal growth, and survival were compared in Swiss-Webster mice. Single daily doses 0, 50, or 100 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of different amphetamines were administered on pregnancy days 6 through 18. The 50 mg/kg doses of all amphetamines were well tolerated by the mothers and did not produce any overt signs of maternal toxicity or death. However, a few mothers died on different days of gestation after receiving 100 mg/kg of 4-HA, 4-MEA, 4-ETA, and 4-BEA. The mothers that failed to deliver naturally 3 d after the due date were killed and their uteri were examined for live/dead fetuses and resorption sites. In comparison with respective controls, the incidence of resorptions was markedly higher in the 4-MEA- and 4-ETA-dosed groups. Delivery was prolonged in the 4-PPA- and 4-BEA-treated dams. Apparently well-formed but dead pups were delivered by 4-HA-, 4-PPA-, and 4-BEA-dosed mice. Marked reductions in average litter size and weight occurred after intrauterine exposure to 100 mg/kg 4-BEA. Treatment with 4-ETA, 4-PPA, and 4-BEA not only resulted in a high incidence of cannibalism within 24 h after birth but also caused an increase in cumulative pup mortality during the first 3 weeks of age. Body weight gain was significantly lower in 3-week-old offspring exposed to 4-HA and 4-PPA than in the controls. The findings suggest that 4-substituted amphetamines exhibit a wide variation in their effects on maternal toxicity and pregnancy wastage, and produce adverse effects on parturition, pup survival, and postnatal development.
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