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Costall B, Naylor RJ, Pinder RM. 
“Characterisation of the mechanisms for hyperactivity induction from the nucleus accumbens by phenylethylamine derivatives”. 
Psychopharmacology Berl. 1976 Jul 24;48(2):225-31.
A wide variety of phenylethylamine derivatives were injected bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens of rat following a nialamide pretreatment and hyperactivity was recorded. 2-Phenylethylamine was shown to induce a low intensity hyperactivity but the introduction of hydroxyl functions on to the phenyl ring at the 3- and/or 4-positions enhanced activity and m- and p-tyramine and dopamine each caused marked hyperactivity in the 3.4-25 mug dosage range. Methylation of one hydroxyl function reduced activity 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy- and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-phenylethylamine 23,4-methylenedioxyphenyl ethylamine was inactive. Agents with substitution of the side chain, such as noradreline, d-amphetamine and alpha-methyldopamine, were all shown to induce marked hyperactivity at doses of 1.6-25 mug. Alterations in the chain length markedly reduced activity 4-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl butylamine, 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine. A variety of N-substituted compounds were shown to be potent inducers of hyperactivity from the nucleus accumbens adrenaline, epinine, N-ethyldopamine, N-isopropyl-dopamine, isoprenaline 0.2-25 mug. However, N-methyl-N-isopropyldopamine showed only weak activity and N,N-dimethyldopamine was inactive. All hyperactivity effects were shown to be dose-dependent. The hyperactivities induced by dopamine, noradrenaline and isoprenaline were each inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by subsequent injections of fluphenazine 1.25-25 mug into the nucleus accumbens, although no reductions were recorded following similar injections of saline, solvent, 2 procaine, 50 mug propranolol or 50 mug piperoxan.
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