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Shaffer H. 
“Methadone and Pregnancy: Perspectives and Prescriptions”. 
J Psychedelic Drugs. 1979 Jul-Sep 21;11(3):191-202.
Opiate addiction can result in a wide variety of physical complications. For example, Piatt and Labatc 1976:85 cite a 1972 study by Pearson et al. who studied the use of street heroin and reported that after administering adulterated 'street' narcotics many New York City addicts manifested the following: delirium, convulsions, coma, parkinsonian-like states, acute transverse myelitis, amblyopia, intellectual dysfunction, personality change and a variety of other disorders e.g., endocarditis and hepatitis the interested reader is referred to Hofmann 1975 and Piatt and Labate 1976 for excellent discussions of the medical complications associated with drug abuse. The reproductive system, however, typically does not manifest any major physical signs of abuse with the notable exceptions for heavy users of injection sites in the vaginal wall or dorsal vein of the penis Hofmann 1975. With the memories of drug-related tragedies still vivid e.g., thalidomide and the admonition that '. . . since pregnancy is often not diagnosed at the time of greatest vulnerability of the fetus, all drugs not known to be reasonably safe on the basis of long usage should be avoided by women of childbearing age ...' Goodman & Gilman 1970:27 it is important if not vital to be aware of the effects of commonly, prescribed medications on conception and pregnancy.
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