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Finnegan LP. 
“The effects of narcotics and alcohol on pregnancy and the newborn”. 
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1981;362:136-57.
The effects of narcotics and alcohol on pregnancy and the newborn have been known for centuries, but only within the past decade have investigators been able to delineate them more specifically. The pregnant addicted woman and her unborn fetus have become an integral part of the special services provided in perinatal centers in many cities in our country. Although the exact magnitude of narcotic dependency in pregnant women is unknown, by way of 'statistical gymnastics' it is currently possible to make estimates of the numbers of infants born to addicted mothers in the United States. The Service Research Branch of the National Institute on Drug Abuse recently reported that 5,000 infants were born to heroin and/ or methadone maintained mothers in 1977. The incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome has been reported to be seen in one to two live births per 1,000 births with partial expressions seen in three to five live births per 1,000 births.
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