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O'Callaghan JP, Miller DB. 
“Quantification of reactive gliosis as an approach to neurotoxicity assessment”. 
NIDA Res Monogr. 1993;136:188-212.
If handed a bottle containing a pure chemical, told its molecular structure and melting or boiling point, and then asked whether this substance was neurotoxic, most scientists would probably not even hazard a guess. However, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must face this 'real world' scenario on a daily basis. For example, under the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 USC 2601 et seq 1976), the EPA's Pre-Manufacturing Notification Process requires companies to give notification of their intent to manufacture a new chemical or mixture. Within 90 days of receipt of this information, the EPA must decide whether there are sufficient grounds to deny permission to manufacture the compound. This decision is to be based on the 'potential risk of injury to health or the environment' posed by exposure to the compound... The purpose of this chapter is to show how the application of one approach, quantification of reactive gliosis, can be used to assess the neurotoxic effects of broad classes of chemicals found in the environment.
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