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Schifano F, Magni G. 
“MDMA ('ecstasy') abuse: psychopathological features and craving for chocolate: a case series”. 
Biol Psychiatry. 1994;36(11):763-7.
The amphetamine analog 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA. 'ecstasy') is a drug of abuse which combines the effects of amphetamines and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). MDMA has become increasingly popular in northern Italy, but its use has been associated with lasting adverse neuropsychiatric sequelae in humans who have taken repeated doses (and in one case even after a single dose; McCann and Ricaurte 1992). These adverse effects include anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, flashbacks, chronic psychoses (McGuire and Fahy 1991), recurrent acute paranoid psychosis, cognitive abnormalities, and depression with suicidal behavior (Benazzi and Mazzoli 1991; Creighton et al 1991; McCann and Ricaurte 1991; Pallanti and Mazzi 1992: Krystal and Price 1992). It has been suggested (Henry 1992) that it will take many years to understand fully the real contribution of MDMA abuse to the onset of psychiatric disturbances. In the last 24 months, 50 consecutive MDMA abusers presented to the Addiction Treatment Unit in Padova and one or more of the above-described psychopathological features were found in 16 of them (data not shown here; Schifano 1994). The present report focuses on seven patients (one has been the subject of another communication; Schifano 1991) whose psychopathological disturbances included a craving for chocolate (a symptom which, to the best of our knowledge, had not been observed previously in MDMA abusers).
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