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Riley SCE, James C, Gregory D, Dingle H, Cadger M. 
“Patterns of recreational drug use at dance events in Edinburgh, Scotland”. 
Addiction. 2001;96:1035-1047.
Aims. To describe the patterns of drug use at dance (rave) events in terms of prevalence, frequency, type of drugs used, patterns of use, access and risk-associated behaviours. Design. Self-selecting participant-completed survey. Setting. Three dance events in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. Participants. One hundred and twenty-two drug users (57% males, 43% females), 90% of whom were in employment or education, with an age range of 16–47, 80% between 18 and 23 years. Measurements. Participants who answered ‘yes’ to the question ‘Have you used drugs for dance events in the past year’ reported (i) the prevalence, types and frequency of drugs used; (ii) prevalence and contents of mixing drugs; (iii) accessing drugs; and (iv) engagement with drug-associated risk behaviours. Findings. Over 80% of the participants had used ecstasy and amphetamine, over 30% cocaine and LSD; over 10% nitrites, psilocybin and ketamine and less than 5% had used crack or tranquillizers. Participants reported regular consumption of ecstasy and amphetamine (e.g. 35% used ecstasy and 25% amphetamine on a weekly basis) often taken in combination, with the occasional use of cocaine, LSD, ketamine and psilocybin. Poly- and mixing-drug behaviours were significantly more likely than monodrug usage. Drugs were accessed through friends than from any other source. Eighty-five per cent reported mixing drugs and/or alcohol, 35% driving on drugs, 36% having a bad experience on drugs; 30% unprotected sex; and 0.9% injecting drugs. Women in the sample reported higher consumption than men. Conclusions. Dance-drug use has a characteristic pattern that has implications for health promotion and criminal policy.
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