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Matsushima K, Nagai T, Kamiyama S. 
“Optical isomer analysis of 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine analogues and their stereoselective disposition in rats”. 
J Anal Toxicol. 1998 Jan-Feb;22(1):33-9.
Identification of the optical activity and simultaneous analysis of racemates (+/-) of three hallucinogens, 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), and the urinary excretion of their optical isomers in rats was performed by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Analysis of optical enantiomers of three N-alkyl MDA derivatives was performed within 50 min using two different detectors, polarimetry (OR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV). The OR detector proved suitable for identification of the optically active forms, whereas the UV detector was suitable for simultaneous analysis of the enantiomers in urine. After the administration of each of the three N-alkylated derivatives, rat urine specimens were collected over four intervals, 0-4, 4-12, 12-20, and 20-24 h. After the administration of 30 mg/kg of racemic MDA and MDMA, somewhat less of the S(+)-forms of unchanged MDA and MDMA than of the R(-)-forms in each urine specimen were detected, which gave R/S ratios greater than 1.00 (p < 0.01). Conversely, after the administration of 30 mg/kg of racemic MDEA, more of the S(+)-form than the R(-)-form was found in the urine, thus giving R/S ratios less than 1.00 (p < 0.01). The percentage of the dose excreted up to 24 h was approximately 29.4% of the administered dose for MDA [S(+) 13.40% and R(-) 15.98%], 5.8% for MDMA [S(+) 1.96% and R(-) 3.79%], and 7.3% for MDEA [S(+) 3.89% and R(-) 3.43%]. Urinary excretion of optical isomers of N-dealkylated MDA from MDMA and MDEA origin were the opposite of those of the unchanged forms, and their R/S ratios up to 24 h were 0.48 to 0.72 (p < 0.01) and 1.31 to 1.50 (p < 0.01), respectively. The urinary excretion rates up to 24 h were approximately 4.3% for N-dealkylated MDA from MDMA origin [S(+) 2.72% and R(-) 1.63%] and 0.8% for N-dealkylated MDA from MDEA origin [S(+) 0.36% and R(-) 0.47%]. The total percent of unchanged forms and N-dealkylated MDA was approximately 10.1% for MDMA [S(+) 4.68% and R(-) 5.42%] and 8.2% for MDEA [S(+) 4.25% and R(-) 3.91%]. The total R/S ratio of MDMA was found to be 1.95 (p < 0.01), whereas that of MDEA was 0.88 (p < 0.01). The total R/S ratio of MDA was 1.20 (p < 0.01 ), which was comparable with that of MDMA. These three R/S ratios did not conform to the theoretical values for three N-alkyl derivatives used and neither did the R/S ratios of urine specimens collected at the four interval. These results suggested the stereoselective disposition of three N-alkyl MDA analogues in rat. The method would be suitable for the forensic chemistry and toxicology analysis of specimens obtained from hallucinogen abusers.
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