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Maffii G. 
“Influenza della mescalina e della dietilamide dell'acido lisergico (LSD-25) sull'apprendimento del riflesso condizionato di salvaguardia (primario e secondario) nel ratto.”. 
Farmaco, Ed.sci.. 1959;14:503.
Rats learned to avoid an electric shock by jumping on to a rod when a warning signal sounded (conditioned reaction). After a fairly long period of training, some rats jumped on to the rod as soon as they were placed in the cage (fitted with a screen floor which could be charged electrically): this is termed a "secondary" conditioned response by the author. The effect of daily administration of LSD (0.05, 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg s.c.) and mescaline (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg orally) on the development of the unconditioned response (electrical stimulation without warning sound) and that of the "primary" and "secondary" conditioned responses was studied during the training period. . LSD and mescaline did not significantly influence the unconditioned and the "primary" conditioned escape responses. However, medium doses (0.1 mg/kg LSD and 40 mg/kg mescaline) significantly shortened the "secondary" conditioned response. This was not significantly altered by higher or lower doses. . The findings suggest that the "secondary" conditioned response is mainly due to an emotional disorder and is not "physiological". It may therefore be suitable for the evaluation of tranquilizers.
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