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Mintzer S, Hickenbottom S, Gilman S. 
“Parkinsonism after taking ecstasy”. 
N Engl J Med. 1999 May 6;340(18):1443.
We hypothesize that our patient may have had parkinsonism as a result of a delayed neurotoxic effect of MDMA on the substantia nigra and striatum. There is evidence for such dopaminergic neurotoxicity in animals, 4,s and delayed neurotoxicity in humans could occur as a result of neuronal damage induced by free radicals, s Recent research regarding the neurotoxic effects of this substance has focused on serotonergic neurotoxicity and impairment of memory. This patient's case suggests that the effects of MDMA on dopaminergic systems should be studied further to characterize more fully the dangers of its use.
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