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Nakahara Y, Kikura R. 
“Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. XVIII. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) disposition in hair roots and use in identification of acute MDMA poisoning”. 
Biol Pharm Bull. 1997 Sep;20(9):969-72.
In order to clarify the mechanism of drug incorporation into hair, disposition of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA), 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MMDA) and metabolites of MDMA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMAP) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), into hair was investigated with an animal model. After the intraperitoneal administration of those six drugs to pigmented hairy rats (5 mg/kg/day, 10 days, n = 3), the parent compounds and their metabolites in the rat plasma (5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 360 min after administration) and in the newly grown rat hair for 4 weeks were determined by GC/MS-SIM. When the ratio of hair concentration to area under the concentration versus time curves (AUCs) in plasma was represented as an index of incorporation rate (ICR) of drugs into hair, the order of ICRs was HMAP < MDA < HMMA < MDMA < MDEA < MMDA. In the comparison between MDA, MDMA and MDEA, their ICRs increased according to the length of carbon branches from proton to ethyl at the N position. From the point of view that the ICRs of MMDA was 2.3 times as much as that of MDA, the methoxy group on the benzene ring seemed to serve as a positive factor for the ICR. However, the ICRs of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy compounds, HMAP and HMMA, were lower in comparison with those of MDA and MDMA, respectively. On the other hand, the ICRs of MDA, MDMA and MDEA were 5.5-6.1 times larger than those of amphetamine, methamphetamine and ethylamphetamine, suggesting that the methylenedioxy group on the benzene ring raises their ICRs very positively. Moreover, in order to apply the results from the animal experiments to human cases, the scalp hair samples of seven MDMA abusers were analyzed. MDMA and its metabolites, MDA; were simultaneously detected in all the samples by GC/MS. In the two samples, MDEA was found in addition to MDMA and MDA. It was shown that a hair sample is a good specimen for the confirmation of retrospective use of methylenedioxyamphetamines.
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