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Crespi D, Mennini T, Gobbi M. 
“Carrier-dependent and Ca(2+)-dependent 5-HT and dopamine release induced by (+)-amphetamine, 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine, p-chloroamphetamine and (+)-fenfluramine”. 
Br J Pharmacol. 1997 Aug;121(8):1735-43.
The mechanism underlying 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and/or dopamine release induced by (+)-amphetamine ((+)-Amph), 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), p-chloroamphetamine (pCA) and (+)-fenfluramine ((+)-Fen) was investigated in rat brain superfused synaptosomes preloaded with the 3H neurotransmitters. 2. Their rank order of potency for [3H]-5-HT-releasing activity was the same as for inhibition of 5-HT uptake (pCA > or = MDMA > or = (+)-Fen > > (+)-Amph). Similarly, their rank order as [3H]-dopamine releasers and dopamine uptake inhibitors was the same ((+)-Amph > > pCA = MDMA > > (+)-Fen). We also confirmed that the release induced by these compounds was prevented by selective transporter inhibitors (indalpine or nomifensine). 3. [3H]-5HT and/or [3H]-dopamine release induced by all these compounds was partially (31-80%), but significantly Ca(2+)-dependent. Lack of extracellular Ca2+ did not alter uptake mechanisms nor did it modify the carrier-dependent dopamine-induced [3H]-dopamine release. (+)-Amph-induced [3H]-dopamine release and pCA- and MDMA-induced [3H]-5-HT release were significantly inhibited by omega-agatoxin-IVA, a specific blocker of P-type voltage-operated Ca(2+)-channels, similar to the previous results on (+)-Fen-induced [3H]-5-HT release. 4. Methiothepin inhibited the Ca(2+)-dependent component of (+)-Amph-induced [3H]-dopamine release with high potency (70 nM), as previously found with (+)-Fen-induced [3H]-5-HT release. The inhibitory effect of methiothepin was not due to its effects as a transporter inhibitor or Ca(2+)-channel blocker and is unlikely to be due to its antagonist properties on 5-HT1/2, dopamine or any other extracellular receptor. 5. These results indicate that the release induced by these compounds is both 'carrier-mediated' and Ca(2+)-dependent (possibly exocytotic-like), with the specific carrier allowing the amphetamines to enter the synaptosome. The Ca(2+)-dependent release is mediated by Ca(2+)-influx (mainly through P-type Ca(2+)-channels), possibly triggered by the drug interacting with an unknown intracellular target, affected by methiothepin, common to both 5-HT and dopamine synaptosomes.
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